Eclipses

A solar eclipse is when the Moon lines up between Earth and the Sun such that the Moon either partially or completely blocks out the Sun.

The Great American Eclipse

For the first time since 1979, the contiguous United States will be treated to a total solar eclipse. Even more exciting, the path of totality across the USA starts in Oregon and ends in South Carolina.

Total Solar Eclipse – August 21, 2017

Path of the 2017 Total Eclipse through the USA. Courtesy of Fred Espenak

Path of the 2017 Total Eclipse through the USA. Courtesy of Fred Espenak

Event UTC Time EDT Time
First location to see the partial eclipse begin Aug 21 at 15:46 Aug 21 at 11:46 AM
First location to see the full eclipse begin Aug 21 at 16:48 Aug 21 at 12:48 PM
 First location in Oregon Aug 21 at 17:15  Aug 21 at 1:15 PM
Maximum eclipse Aug 21 at 18:21 Aug 21 at 2:21 PM
 Last location in South Carolina Aug 21 at 18:49 Aug 21 at 2:49 PM
Last location to see the full eclipse end Aug 21 at 20:02 Aug 21 at 4:02 PM
Last location to see the partial eclipse end Aug 21 at 21:04 Aug 21 at 5:04 PM

 

Cities where at least part of the total eclipse is visible

(From DateandTime.com)

The next total solar eclipse in the US is April 8, 2024 and the next one to cross the contiguous United States is August 12, 2045.

The last time a total eclipse was visible from coast to coast was June 8, 1918.

21st Century North American Eclipses

When the Moon passes directly between the Sun and Earth, its umbra (shadow cone) reaches Earth's surface and thus completely covers the Sun. The result is a total solar eclipse. But when the Moon is slightly farther from Earth, its disk appears to small to block the entire Sun, and an annular (or ring) eclipse results. credit: Sky & Telescope

When the Moon passes directly between the Sun and Earth, its umbra (shadow cone) reaches Earth’s surface and thus completely covers the Sun. The result is a total solar eclipse. But when the Moon is slightly farther from Earth, its disk appears to small to block the entire Sun, and an annular (or ring) eclipse results. credit: Sky & Telescope

How to Safely Watch the Eclipse

Never look at the sun or an eclipse directly!

a1f975f9288c5e536e21c23ee91fece8

Source: space.com via The Sun Today on Pinterest

When the Sun is completely blocked out we called it a total solar eclipse, and often this is what people think of with an eclipse. But a partial eclipse can be just as exciting.

When the Moon comes just shy of completely blocking out the Sun a bright ring or annulus is visible. This is a special kind of partial eclipse, an annular eclipse.

Guide to Solar Eclipses (Infographic) Guide to Solar Eclipses (Infographic)

Credit: Karl Tate, SPACE.com Contributor
How Solar Eclipses Work: When the moon covers up the sun,
skywatchers delight in the opportunity to see a rare spectacle.

Eclipse/Transit Facts

  • The longest duration for a total solar eclipse is 7.5 minutes.
  • Eclipse shadows travel at 1,100 miles per hour at the equator and up to 5,000 miles per hour near the poles.
  • The maximum number of solar eclipses (partial, annular, or total) is 5 per year.
  • A total eclipse can only happen during a new moon.
  • Nearly identical eclipses (total, annual, or partial) occur after 18 years and 11 days, or every 6,585.32 days (Saros Cycle).
  • A total solar eclipse is not noticable until the Sun is more than 90 percent covered by the Moon. At 99 percent coverage, daytime lighting resembles local twilight.
  • The width of the Moon’s shadow is at most 170 miles wide.
  • There are at least 2 solar eclipses per year somewhere on the Earth.
  • Total solar eclipses happen about once every year or two.
  • The Sun’s corona (“crown”) can ONLY be seen from the Earth’s surface during a total eclipse.
  • The alignment of Sun, Venus, and Earth comes in pairs that are eight years apart but separated by over a century.
  • The last transit of Venus pair before 2012 happened in December 1874 and December 1882.
  • The most recent pair were in June 2004 and June 2012.
  • After 2012, subsequent pairs will be in December 2117 and December 2125.
  • There will be 36 solar eclipses from 2001-2025, of which 15 will be total eclipses on some part of Earth’s surface – a little less than the average of one a year.
  • Transits and eclipses are rare celestial events but the transit of Venus is the rarest.
  • Transits of Venus allow astronomers to calculate more accurately the distance of Venus from the Sun, and subsequently the distances of other planets.
  • One can see the corona or atmosphere of the Sun safely with naked eyes only during a total solar eclipse.
  • Gemini 12 witnessed a total solar eclipse in 1966 and the International Space Station, in 2006.
  • The Hubble Space Telescope will be aimed at the moon to detect dips in brightness during the 2012 transit of Venus.
  • The Solar Dynamic Observatory captured the Sun and Venus during the 2012 transit in unprecedented detail.
  • A transit of Venus occurs when Venus passes directly between the Sun and the Earth.
  • A solar eclipse occurs when the moon passes between the Sun and the Earth, and the moon fully or partially blocks the Sun as viewed from a location on Earth.
Eclipses
Total Lunar Eclipse of April 15, 2014 from http://www.mreclipse.com/LEphoto/TLE2014Apr/TLE2014Apr-1145.html